Irish Lesson 8

 

PRONUNCIATION

You may have wondered about the meaning of the letters "bhf" in "bhfuil". The basic word is "fuil" (fwil), but Irish speakers change the (f) sound by using the vocal cords, or humming, while they pronounce the "f", causing a (v) sound.

Certain words and phrases, such as "an" or "nach", or "ar an" (er un), which means "on the", bring about this change. They also cause the speaker to close off the flow of air somewhat for other consonants, altering the sound to a nasal hum: "d" becomes "n", and "b" becomes "m". The changes are called "eclipsis", but you will learn them easily from the reference list below. You already know the sounds themselves. "Ár" (aw*r) means "our" and is one of the words that cause eclipsis in following initial consonants.

 

bia,ár mbia (BEE-uh, aw*r MEE-uh) food, our food

cistin,ár gcistin (KISH-tin, a*wr GISH-tin) kitchen, our kitchen

deis,ár ndeis (desh, aw*r nesh) opportunity, our opportunity

fear,ár bhfear (far, aw*r var) man, our man

peata,ár bpeata (PAT-uh, aw*r BAT-uh) pet, our pet

tír,ár dtír (teer, aw*r deer) country, our country

pócaí,ár bpócaí(POH-kee, aw*r BOH-kee) pockets, our pockets

talamh,ár dtalamh (TAH-luhv, aw*r DAH-luhv) land, our land

bád,ár mbád (baw*d, ar*r maw*d) boat, our boat

cótaí,ár gcótaí(KOH-tee, aw*r GOH-tee) coats, our coats

dóthain,ár ndóthain (DOH-hin, aw*r NOH-hin) enough, enough for us

fáinne,ár bhfáinne (FAW*-nye, aw*r VAW*-nye) ring, our ring

 

One more, which will be a little harder for you to pronounce at first, although you know the individual sounds from English:

When eclipsed, the initial letter "g" takes the sound of "ng" that is at the end of the English word "sung". This is a little difficult at first to put before a word. Try this:ár ngeata (aw*rng A-tuh), our gate. Join the (aw*r) sound to the (ng) sound, saying it separately at first and then adding on the (A-tuh). Try "ár ngairdín" (aw*rng ahr-DEEN). Practice on:ár ngluaisteán (aw*rng LOOSH-taw*n), our auto;ár ngrá(aw*rng raw*), our love;ár nguí(aw*rng ee), our prayer;ár ngúnaí(aw*rng OON-ee), our dresses.

 

VOCABULARY

 

Masculine Nouns

cúpla (KOOP-luh), a couple

sneachta (SHNAHK*-tuh), snow

staighre (STEYE-ruh), stairs

urlár, an t-urlár (oor-LAW*R, un toor-LAW*R) floor

uisce, an t-uisce, (ISH-ke, un TISH-ke), water

bainne (BAHN-ye), milk

 

Feminine Nouns

aimsir (EYEM-sheer), weather

maidin, an mhaidin (MAH-din, un VWAH-din), morning

lámh (law*v), hand

súil, an tsúil (SOO-il, un TOO-il), eye

ach (ahk*), but

óshin (oh HIN), ago

ach oiread (ahk* IR-uhd), either

istigh (ish-TEE), inside

amuigh (uh-MWEE), outside

ag foghlaim Gaeilge (uh FOU-lim GAY*-lig-e), learning Irish

ag dul suas an staighre (uh duhl SOO-uhs un STEYE-ruh), going upstairs

ag dul síos (SHEE-uhs) an staighre , going downstairs

Táséthuas (HOO-uhs) an staighre, He's upstairs

Táséthíos (HEE-uhs) an staighre, He's downstairs

 

GRAMMAR

Use the words "isteach" (ish-TYAHK*) and "amach" (uh-MAHK*) when movement is meant. To indicate that someone is remaining inside or outside, use "istigh" and "amuigh".

 

DRILL

Translate: a good hand, a good eye, the good eye, a long morning, the long morning, a crooked street, the crooked street. The proper forms are given below, after the conversation.

Next, go through a progressive drill on:

An bhfuil méag dul suas an staighre? Níl __. Tátú__. Etc. Repeat with "síos an staighre".

 

CONVERSATION

Éamann (AY*-muhn): Cábhfuil Séamas anois? (kaw* vwil SHAY*-muhs uh-NISH) Where is James now?

Cáitlín (kaw*t-LEEN): Níl a fhios agam (neel is uh-GUHM).Bhíséag dul suas an staighre cúpla noiméadóshin (vee shay* uh duhl SOO-uhs STEYE-ruh KOOP-luh NOH-may*d oh hin.) I don't know He was going up the stairs a couple of minutes ago.

Éamann: B'fhéidir go bhfuil séthuas an staighre anois (BAY*-dir goh vwil shay* HOO-uhs un STEYE-ruh uh-NISH). Perhaps he's upstairs now.

Séamas: Táméag teacht anois (taw* may* uh tyahk*t uh-NISH). Bhíméistigh an lágo léir (vee may* ish-TEE un law* goh lay*r). I'm coming now. I was inside the whole day.

 

DRILL FORMS: Lámh mhaith (law*v vwah); súil mhaith (SOO-il vwah); an tsúil mhaith (un TOO-il vwah); maidin fhada (MAH-din AH-duh); an mhaidin fhada (un VWAH-din AH-duh); sráid cham (sraw*d k*oum); an tsráid cham (un traw*d k*oum).