Irish Lesson 42
We will review some combinations of sounds this week to improve your knowledge of differences between broad and slender consonants.
Lesson 23 gave you the pronunciation of "c" and "g" in broad and slender form. The slender resembles the initial sound of "king" and "give", while the broad resembles the initial sound of "coat" and "go". Lessons 7 and 29 give you the pronunciation of "r". Review that, and then notice the difference between: crí(kree, which may sound a little like "kdee" to you), and croí, which may sound to you a little like "kuh-REE", with syllables run together.
"Crí" begins with the slender "c" sound, and "croí" with the broad. The slender and broad "r" follow naturally. The "ee" sound at the end is the same for both.
For "g", try: gé(also like "gyay"*), as opposed to gaol (which has a slight resemblance to (gway*l)). The broad "g" in "gaol" introduces a faint (oo) sound after the "g", which may put you in mind of the English "w" in a name like "Gwynn". The lips are not closed in after the "g", however, so that the English "w" sound is not fully developed in Irish words like "gaol". Try "gile" (GIL-e) in contrast to "goile" (with the faint (oo) sound after the "g").
Say "grian" (GREE-uhn), with a slender "g", and then "grá", with a broad "g". In "grá", the tongue tip is rolled for the broad "r".
We have studied four of the nine (in addition to "tá") principal irregular verbs in their past and present tenses:
See: feicim, nífheicim; chonaic mé, nífhaca mé
Hear: cloisim, níchloisim; chuala mé, níor chuala mé
Come: tagaim, níthagaim; tháinig mé, níor tháinig mé
Go: téim, níthéim; chuaigh mé, nídheachaigh mé
Here are the others:
Give: tugaim, níthugaim; thug mé, níor thug mé, ar thug mé?
Get: faighim, nífhaighim (nee EYE-im); fuair mé(FOO-ir-may*), níbhfuair mé(nee VOO-ir may*), an bhfuair mé?
Say, tell: deirim (DER-im), nídeirim (nee DER-im); dúirt mé(DOO-irt may*), nídúirt mé, an ndúirt mé?
Do, make: déanaim (DAY*N-im), nídhéanaim (nee YAY*N-im); rinne mé(RIN-ye may*). nídhearna mé(nee YARN-uh may*), an ndearna mé? (un NYARN-uh may*)
Catch, take hold of, grab: beirim ar (BER-im er), níbheirm ar (nee VER-im er); rug (rug) méar, níor rug méar, ar rug méar?
You should be able to reason out the forms not given above. Try: we told him; we didn't get; did we give?; we don't do; we grabbed him; he does; she takes hold of the plate.
Key for these: dúramar leis; níbhfuaireamar; ar thugamar?; nídhéanaimid; rugamar air; déanann sé; beireann síar an bpláta.
We will do intensive drilling on these verbs to make you able to use them with ease.
Give the English for these groups:
Tháinig séabhaile. Chonaic méé. Beirimid orthu. Níor rug séair. Nach bhfaca túmé? Cábhfuair túé? Nífheicimid iad. Chuamar abhaile. Tugann séduité. Níor chuala sibhí. Nífhaigheann siad airgead. An ndeir túé? Rinne méé. Ar thug méduité? Tagann ségach lá. An gcloiseann túiad? Déanaimidé. Nídúirt méé. Téimid ar an mbóthar.
Note that "deir" (der), meaning "say" or "tell", changes to "deir tú" and "deir sé", etc, instead of becoming "deireann tú", etc.
Also, make sure that you add "ar" after "beir". In Irish, you seize or take hold "on" something.
Key to above phrases: He came home. I saw him. We seize them. He didn't seize it. Didn't you see me? Where did you get it? We don't see them. We went home. He gives it to you. You (plural) didn't hear her. They don't get money. Do you say it? I did it. Did I give it to you? He comes every day. Do you hear them? We do it. I didn't say it. We go on the road.
Now go from English into Irish:
I got the book. I come out. Did we see them? They hear her. She went inside. They get the car. We did the work. Did they seize him? Doesn't he go out? I don't see the man. I give money. Didn't you come back? Did she hear you? He says that. We gave you it. Did he say that? We don't do the work. He doesn't take hold of it rightly.
Key:Fuair méan leabhar. Tagaim amach. An bhfacamar iad? Cloiseann siadí. Chuaigh síisteach. Faigheann siad an carr. Rinneamar an obair. Ar rug siad air? Nach dtéann séamach? Nífheicim an fear. Tugaim airgead. Nár tháinig túar ais (er ash). Ar chuala sítú? Deir séésin. Thugamar duité. An ndúirt séésin? Nídhéanaimid an obair. Níbheireann séair i gceart (i gyart).
We will give further drills on these verbs individually and as a group, so that you will become proficient in them. They are important in everyday speech and in the literature.
Séamas:A Sheáin (uh HYAW*-in), nífhaca mé(nee AHK-uh may*) túle fada anois. John, I didn't see you for a long time now.
Seán:Nach bhfaca tú, a Shéamais? (nahk* VAHK-uh too, uh HAY*-mish) Níor tháinig méamach innéar chor ar bith (NEE-uhr HAW*-nig may* uh-MAHK* in-YAY* huhr er BI). Didn't you, James? I didn't come out yesterday at all.
Séamas:Chuaigh méféin chuig an ollmhargadh ar maidin (K*OO-ig may* fay*n hig un oul-VWAHR-uh-guh er MAH-din). Is iontach (OON-tuhk*) anáité. I myself went to the supermarket this morning. It's a wonderful place.