Irish Lesson 40

 

PRONUNCIATION EXERCISE

Read the phrases below out loud, referring to the pronunciation guide if necessary. When you can read the phrases readily, look at the translation and then go over the phrases again, visualizing the meaning as you say each.

This week we will do heavy memorizing and drilling. The purpose is the thorough learning of aspiration, eclipsis, and some verb forms.

 

PRONUNCIATION EXERCISE

Read the Irish phrases below out loud, referring to the pronunciation guide if necessary. When you can read the phrases readily, look at the translation and then go over the phrases again, visualizing the meaning as you say each:

trígheata; ceithre ghúna; sémhéadar; dhámhadra; cúig phingin; tríphaidir; dhásheomra; ceithre sholas; séthicéad; cúig thoitín

naoi ngrian; acht nglas; deich míle; seacht mála; ocht bpíopa; deich bpunt; seacht seál; naoi sac; deich dteach; seacht dtobar

(tree YAT-uh; KER-e GOON-uh; shay* VAY*-duhr; gaw* VWAH-druh; KOO-ig FEENG-in; tree FAHD-ir; gaw* HOHM-ruh; KER-e HUH-luhs; shay* hi-KAY*D; KOO-ig hi-TYEEN

neeng REE-uhn; ohk*t nglahs; de MEEL-e; shahk*t MAW*-luh; ohk*t BEEP-uh; de boont; shahk*t shaw*l; nee sahk; de dyahk*; shak*t DOH-buhr)

three gates; four dresses; six meters; two dogs; five cents; three prayers; two rooms; four lights; six tickets; five cigarettes

nine suns; eight locks; ten thousand; seven bags; eight pipes; seven pounds; seven shawls; nine sacks; ten houses; seven wells

 

GRAMMAR

You know several verbs of two syllables whose endings in some forms differ somewhat from the one-syllable verbs. "Ceannaigh" is an example: "ceannaíonn " (kan-EE-uhn shay*) means "he buys", and "cheannaíomar" (hyan-EE-uh-mar) means "we bought". Other verbs similar to "ceannaigh" are "imigh", "éirigh", and "deisigh".

Many verbs ending in: ----il, ----in, ----ir and ----is are similar. They naturally drop out a syllable in some forms because the omission makes them easier to pronounce. Otherwise, they are very much like "ceannaigh". Learn the following examples, starting with oscail (OH-skil) open.

Present:

osclaím (OH-skleem), I open

osclaíonn (oh-SKLEE-uhn too), you open

osclaíonn , he opens

osclaíonn , she opens

osclaímid (oh-SKLEE-mid), we open

osclaíonn sibh (shiv) you (pl) open

osclaíonn siad (SHEE-uhd), they open

Níosclaím, níosclaíonn , níosclaímid, etc.

An osclaím? An osclaíonn ? an osclaímid? etc.

Nach n-osclaím (nahk* NOH-skleem), nach n-osclaíonn ? etc.

Past:

d'oscail (DOH-skil may*), I opened

d'oscail , you opened

d'oscail , he opened

d'oscail , she opened

d'osclaíomar (doh-SKLEE-uh-kuhr), we opened

d/oscail sibh, you (pl) opened

d'oscail siad, they opened

Níor oscail , níor oscail , níor osclaíomar (NEE-uhr oh-SKLEE-uh--muhr) etc.

Ar oscail ? ar oscail ? ar osclaíomar? etc

Nár oscail ? nár oscail ? nár osclaíomar? etc.

cosain (KUH-sin) defend

Present:

Cosnaím (KUHS-neem), cosnaíonn (kuhs-NEE-uhn-too), cosnaímid (kuhs-NEE-mid), cosnaíonn sibh, etc

Níchosnaím (nee K*UHS-neem), níchosnaíonn , níchosnaímid (nee k*uhs-NEE-mid) etc.

An gcosnaim? etc. Nach gcosnaim? etc.

Past:

Chosain (K*UH-sin may*) I defend, etc. Chosnaíomar (k*uhs- NEE-uh-muhr), we defend, etc.

Níor chosain , níor chosain , níor chosnaíomar, etc.

Ar chosain ? ar chosnaíomar? (er k*uhs-NEE-uh-muhr) etc.

Nár chosain ? nár chosnaíomar? etc.

Labhair (LOU-ir), speak, becomes "labhraíonn " (lou-REE-uhn shay*), he speaks, "labhraíomar" (lou-REE-uh-muhr) we spoke. The basic form of this verb is "labhair", of course, and "labhair " means "he spoke".

Inis (IN-ish), tell, becomes "insíonn " (in-SHEE-uhn shay*), he tells, and "d'insíomar" (din-SHEE-uh-muhr), we told. The basic form of the verb is "inis", and "d'inis " means "he told".

For "oscail, cosain, labhair" and "inis," note the loss of the syllable in pronouncing forms with added suffixes, such as oscail, osclaíonn.

 

DRILL

Go through the present and past tenses of these verbs: imigh (IM-ee), depart; tochail (TOHK*-il), dig; cogain (KUHG-in), chew; bagair (BAHG-ir), threaten.

For example: Imím, imíonn túetc. Níimím, níimíonn túetc. An imím? etc. Nach n-imím? etc. D'imigh , etc. Níor imigh , etc. Ar imigh ?, etc. Nár imigh ?, etc.

The key forms are: Imíonn, d'imíomar. Tochlaíonn, thochlaíomar. Cognaionn, chognaíomar. Bagraíonn, bhagraíomar.