Irish Lesson 4

 

We began on the verb "" in Lesson 2, and we will continue with it now. Here is the entire present tense:

 

Támé(TAW* may*), I am

Tátú(TAW* too), you (singular) are

Tásé(TAW* shay*), he, (it) is

Tásí(TAW* shee), she is

Táimid (TAW* mid), we are

Tásibh (TAW* shiv), you (plural) are

Tásiad (taw* SHEE-uhd), they are

Níl (NEEL may*), I am not

Níl (NEEL too), you (singular) are not

Níl (NEEL shay*), he is not

Níl (NEEL shee), she is not

Nílimid (NEEL-i-mid), we are not

Níl sibh (NEEL shiv), you (plural) are not

Níl siad (neel SHEE-uhd), they are not

An bhfuil ? (un VWIL may*), am I?

An bhfuil ? (un VWIL too), are you? (singular)

An bhfuil ? (un VWIL shay*), is he?

An bhfuil ? (un VWIL shee), is she?

An bhfuilimid? (un VWIL-i-mid), are we?

An bhfuil sibh? (un VWIL shiv), are you? (plural)

An bhfuil siad? (un vwil shee-uhd), are they?

 

To give you fluency and practice in pronunciation, we now introduce a progressive drill. Repeat the drill several times when the lessons call for it. Each time you repeat it, it becomes easier. The drill takes you through a verb or grammar form progressively, changing from question to negative to declarative and back to the question form. Remember to form a mental picture for each sentence. Here is the basic form:

An bhfuil mésa ghairdín? (un VWIL may* suh gahr-DEEN), Am I in the garden?

Níl mésa ghairdín (NEEL may* suh gahr-DEEN), I am not in the garden.

Tátúsa ghairdín (TAW* too suh gahr-DEEN), You are in the garden. An bhfuil túsa ghairdín? (un VWIL too suh gahr-DEEN), Are you in the garden?

Níl túsa ghairdín (NEEL too suh gahr-DEEN), You are not in the garden.

Tásésa ghairdín (TAW* shay* suh gahr-DEEN), He is in the garden. An bhfuil sésa ghairdín? (un VWIL shay* suh ghar-DEEN), Is he in the garden?

Go on from here. Your last sentence will be: Támésa ghairdín (TAW* may* suh gahr-DEEN), I am in the garden.

 

Vocabulary

The Irish word for "the" is "an". Irish nouns can be either masculine or feminine, and "an" before a feminine noun aspirates most of the initial consonants that can be aspirated. Exceptions are "d", "t", and sometimes "s". "An" does not aspirate the initial consonant of a masculine noun. Learn this vocabulary:

Masculine nouns

(law*), day

clog (kluhg), clock

bus (bus), bus

Feminine nouns

bean, an bhean (ban, un VAN), woman

cos, an chos (kuhs, un K*UHS), foot

duais, an duais (DOO-ish, un DOO-ish), prize

grian, an ghrian (GREE-uhn, un YREE-uhn), sun

fuinneog, an fhuinneog (fwin-YOHG, un in-YOHG), window

teanga, an teanga (TANG-uh, un TANG-uh), language

tír, an tír (teer, un TEER), country

 

Other words and phrases

ag dul abhaile (uh duhl uh-VWAHL-e), going home

breá(bir-RAW*), fine

fliuch (flyuk*), wet

tirim (TIR-im), dry

álainn (AW*-lin), beautiful

fuar (FOO-uhr), cold

 

Conversation

Bríd (breed): Dia duit, a Sheáin (DEE-uh git, uh HYAW*in). Hello John.

Seán (shaw*n): Dia's Muire duit, a Bhríd (DEE-uhs MWIR-uh git, uh VREED) Conas tásibh go léir? (KUN-uhs TAW* shiv goh lay*r) Hello, Bridget. How are you all?

Bríd: Táimid go maith (TAW*-mid goh MAH), agus conas tátúféin? (AH-guhs KUN-uhs TAW* too fay*n). We are well, and how are you yourself?

Seán:&Oactue;O, ar fheabhas (oh er OUS). Nach breáan láé? (nahk* bir-RAW un LAW* ay*). Oh, excellent. Isn't it a fine day?

Bríd: Is breá, go deimhin (is bir-RAW*, goh DEYE-in) Táan ghrian ag soilsiú. (taw* un YREE-uhn uh SEYEL-shoo), agus táan aimsir go hálainn. (taw* un EYEM-sheer goh HAW*-lin). It is fine, certainly. The sun is shining and the weather is beautiful.

Seán: Níl an aimsir chomh fuar agus a bhíséinné. (neel un EYEM-sheer hoh FOO-uhr AH-guhs uh vee shay* in-YAY). The weather is not as cold as it was yesterday.

Bríd: Agus níl an láchomh fliuch agus a bhíséinné. (AH-guhs neel an LAW* hoh flyuk* AH-guhs uh vee shay* in-YAY). And the day is not as wet as it was yesterday.

Seán: Táorm dul abhaile anois, a Bhríd. (TAW* OH-ruhm duhl uh-VWAHL-e uh-NISH, uh VREED). Féach, táséa cúig a chlog beagnach. (FAY*-uhk*, TAW* shay* un KOO-ig uh K*LUHG BYUHG-nahk*). I must go home now, Bridget. Look, it is almost five o'clock. Bríd: Slán leat (slaw*n lat) Good-bye.

Seán: Slán agat, a Bhríd. ( slaw*n uh-GUHT, uh VREED). Good-bye, Bridget.

Note: "Slán agat" (health be at you) is said to someone staying behind. "Slán leat "(health be with you) is said to someone going away.