Irish Lesson 18
In going from the broad vowel "á" in a word to a slender consonant, such as slender "d", "r", "s", or "t", the movement of the tongue to get into position for the slender consonant will result in an extra sound between vowel and consonant.
The extra sound is called a "glide". It is usually shown in writing by the letter "i", and this indicates that the following consonant gets its slender sound. The overall effect can be somewhat like (oy) in English "boy", but you should not try to pronounce an (oy) for these cases.
To see what this means, first review the
pronunciation of slender and broad "t" in Lesson 2, and then slowly pronounce:át (aw*t),áit (AW*-it). Notice that in "áit"
you make a slight (i) sound as your tongue tip goes
to the hard ridge behind your upper teeth. In some parts of
Here are some examples for practice. Review the pronunciation of slender and broad consonants if necessary, before starting:
bád *baw*d); báid (BAW*-id)
pád (paw*d); Páid (PAW*-id)
lár (law*r); láir (LAW*-ir)
pás (paw*s); páis (PAW*-ish); páista (PAW*-ish-te)
trád (traw*d); tráid (TRAW*-id)
srád (sraw*d); sráid (SRAW*-id)
i lár na sráide (i LAW*R nuh SRAW*-id-e)
It is a shortcoming of our simplified pronunciation guide that we can not show this transition or glide as well as it should be, so it will be your task to watch for it and make sure that your pronunciation includes it. We will usually show a word like 'báid" to be pronounced (baw*d), and you must note the "id" at the word end and give the "d" its slender sound, with the tongue tip against the hard ridge behind your upper front teeth.
"Ag" means "at", and it also serves to express "to have", as in "Tácóta ag Seán" (taw* KOH-tuh eg shaw*n), John has a coat. You may think that use of "ag" for these two purposes would be confusing, but that is not so in the actual Irish language. You can tell from the nature of the sentence and the circumstances in which it is used whether "ag" is "at" or is part of the idea of "having".
For example, TáSeán ag an doras" must mean that John is at the door. Obviously the door does not "have" John. On the other hand, "Tácarr ag Seán" means that John has a car, rather than a car is "at John", or even at John's house. Irish has another expression for "at some one's house": "tigh Sheáin" (tee HYAW*-in).
Go through the following drill for expressing "to have" in Irish. Remember to recite aloud and form a mental picture for each sentence.
An bhfuil nuachtán agam? (un vwil NOO-uhk*-taw*n uh-GUHM).
Níl nuachtán agat (neel NOO-uhk*-taw*n uh GUHM)
Tánuachtán agat (uh-GUHT).
An bhfuil nuachtán agat?
Níl nuachtán agat.
Tánuachtán aige (eg-GE).
An bhfuil nuachtán aige? And so on, until you return to "Tánuachtán agam" as the last sentence.
Here are some phrases to help you learn how "ag an" (eg un), at the, causes eclipses. "Ag an" does not always cause eclipses, especially in the case of words starting with "d" or "t", but learn the eclipses for all cases initially.
bean, ag an mbean (ban, eg un man), woman, at the woman
fear, ag an bhfear (far, eg un var), man, at the man
doras, ag an ndoras (DUH-ruhs, eg un NUH-ruhs), door, at the door
carr, ag an gcarr (kahr, eg un gahr), car, at the car
páista, ag an bpáiste (PAW*SH-te, eg un BAW*SH-te), child, at the child
geata, ag an ngeata (GAT-uh, eg ung AT-uh), gate, at the gate
teach, ag an dteach (tahk*, eg un dyahk*), house, at the house
Pól: (pohl): Dia duit, a Róisín (DEE-uh git, uh roh-SHEEN). Hello, Rose.
Róisín: Dia's Muire duit, a Phóil (DEE-uhs MWIR-uh git, uh FOH-il). Conas tátú? (KUN-uhs taw* too) Hello, Paul. How are you?
Pól: Támégo maith (taw* may* goh mah). Agus conas tátúféin? I am well. And how are you?
Róisín: Támégo maith leis (lesh). I am well, too.
Pól: An bhfuil aon scéal nua agat? (un vwil ay*n shkay*l NOO-uh uh-GUHT) Have you any news? ("new story," literally).
Róisín: Níl. Ach bhíméag léamh an nuachtáin aréir (uh LAY*-uhv un NOO-uhk-taw*-in uh-RAY*R). I don't. But I was reading the paper last night. Rud suimiúil a chonaic mé(rud sim-OO-il uh K*UHN-ik may*). An interesting thing I saw. Táraidióagus teilifíseán ag beagnach gach duine sa tír seo (taw* RAH-dee-oh AH-guhs TEL-i-fee-shaw*n eg BYUHG-nahk* gahk* DIN-e suh teer shuh). Nearly everyone in this country has a radio and television set.
Pól: Níl teilifíseán agamsa (uh-GUHM-suh). I don't have a television. An bhfuil teilifíseán agatsa? Have you one?
Róisín: O, tá, agus táceann (kyoun) ag gach cara eile liom (KAH-ruh EL-e luhm). Oh, I do, and every other friend of mine has one.