Irish Lesson 11



The pair of letters "ea" within a word or at a word end often gets an (a) sound like that in the English word "hat". Examples: fear (far), man; bean (ban), woman; leat (lat), with you; is ea (sha), it is; níhea (nee HA), it is not.

At the beginning of a word, the "ea" often gets the (ah) sound in the English word "psalm". Examples: eagla (AH-gluh), fear; eaglais (AH-glish), church; each (ahk*), horse.

Sometimes "ea" is pronounced (ou), as in English "out", when it is inside a word.

Examples: ceann (kyoun) head; leabhar (LOU-wuhr), book; gleann (gloun), glen; seabhac (shouk), hawk.

If in an unaccented syllable, "ea" is usually pronounced (uh). Examples: seisean (SHESH-uhn), he (emphatic); aingeal (ANG-uhl), angel.

We will continue to give you the pronunciation guide for all new words and most of the exercises, but you will gradually develop ability to pronounce words by drawing on your experience with similarly spelled words, so that after a time you will not depend on the pronunciation guide.



Here are several more expressions that you should learn for quick use in conversation and thought.

B'fhéidir (BAY*-dir), Perhaps.

Gan amhras (guhn OU-ruhs), Without doubt.

Fan go bhfeicfidh (fahn goh VEK-hee may*), Wait till I see.

Is maithésin (is MAH ay* shin), That's good.

Notice that the second "f" in "bhfeicfidh" is pronounced like an "h". This letter "f" indicates the future tense.



Last week we learned how to say that a person or thing is in a general class. An example:

Is seomraé(is SHOHM-ruh ay*), It is a room.

Here are the basic forms for this:

Is scoláire (is skuh-LAW*-re may*), I am a student.

Is scoláire (is skuh-LAW*-re too), You are a student.

Is scoláireé(is skuh-LAW*-re ay*), He is a student.

Is scoláireí(is skuh-LAW*-re ee), She is a student.

Is scoláirísinn(is skuh-LAW*-ree shin), We are students.

Is scoláirísibh (is skuh-LAW*-ree shiv), You (plural) are students

Is scoláiríiad (is skuh-LAW*-ree EE-uhd), They are students.



Masculine nouns

dinnéar (DIN-yay*r), dinner

Im, an t-im (im, un tim), butter, the butter

siúcra (SHOOK-ruh), sugar

fo-chupán (FOH-k*upaw*n), saucer

ith, ag ithe (i, eg I-he), eat, eating

éist, agéisteacht (ay*sht, eg AY*shtyahk*t), listen, listening

Feminine nouns

scoil, an scoil (skuhl, un skuhl), school, the school

subh, an tsubh (soov, un toov), jam, the jam

cathaoir, an cathaoir (KAH-heer, un K*AH-heer), chair, the chair

ól, agól (ohl, eg ohl) drink, drinking

milis (MIL-ish), sweet

dána (DAW*-nuh), bold



Go through the basic forms for "is" (is), with:

dochtúir, dochtúirí(dohk*-TOO-ir, dohk*-TOO-IR-ee), doctor, doctors

múinteoir, múinteoirí(moo-in-TYOHR, moo-in-TYOHR-ee), teacher, teachers

péintéir, péintéirí(PAY*N-tay*r, PAY*N-tay*r-ee), painter, painters



Máirín (maw*-REEN), Maureen: Tar isteach sa chistin agus suigh síos (tahr is-TYAHK* suh HYISH-tin AH-guhs si SHEE-uhs). Tádo dhinnéar ullamh (taw* duh YIN-yay*r UL-uhv). Come into the kitchen and sit down. Your dinner is ready.

Dónall (DOHN-uhl), Donald: Ach cábhfuil Pádraigín? (ahk* caw* vwil PAW*-dri-geen) Nach bhfuil síabhaileón scoil fós? (nahk* vwil shee uh-VWAHL-e ohn skuhl fohs) But where is Patricia? Isn't she home from school yet?

Máirín: Níl (neel shee). Níl a fhios agam cábhfuil (neel is uh GUHM kaw* vwil shee). She's not. I don't know where she is.

Dónall: Tágach rud ar an mbord, go cinnte, ach táan fochupán seo salach (taw* gahk* rud er un mohrd, goh KIN-te, ahk* taw* un FOH-k* u-paw*n shuh suh-LAHK*). Everything's on the table, certainly, but this saucer is dirty.

Máirín: Nighé, mar sin (ni ay*, mahr shin). Táméan ghnóthach (taw* may* AHN-gnoh-huhk*). Wash it then. I'm very busy.

Dónall, táPádraigín ag teacht anois (oh, taw* PAW*-dri-geen uh tyahk*t uh-NISH). Tásíag siúl trígacháit fhliuch ar an tsráid. (taw* shee uh shool tree gahk* aw*t lyuk* er un traw*d). Oh, Patricia's coming now. She's walking through every wet place on the street.

Máirín: Agusígan a buataisí! (AH-guhs ee guhn uh BOO-ti-shee) And she without her boots!

Notes: In Irish, "an-" before an adjective means "very". It usually aspirates the next consonant, as in "an-fhliuch" (AHN-lyuk*), very wet. Accent is usually on the "an-" prefixed to the word.